note: the girl effect


video from this site

This is not an *.org, it is a program of the Nike Foundation along with NoVo.

Key ideas used in the text are: social change, invisibility of girls and women in the media, development, girl power. The website of the project as a start for social change. Social change=economic independence, (‘end poverty’), not equality

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digital methods and walled gardens

Anne Helmond writes in her research blog about the Mapping the Walled Gardens conference in Amsterdam

a conference about “Digital methods for researching and visualizing networks on the Web, moderated by Sabine Niederer and Richard Rogers”.

the initiative is concerned with doing research with new media and how methods transform “ owing to the technical specificities of new media”.

  • they gather tools in a single space
  • evaluate the various ways of analysis visualisation  (in ranked lists, in cluster graphs, in line graphs, in clouds, on maps)

and the institute of network cultures blog.


web and mapping adventures

I am experimenting with:

FreeMind – a free java based tool for concept mapping, can export in html, pdf and other formats

delicious, the social bookmarking tool. It takes ages to sort out imported links from firefox but I will hopefully get over this point and enjoy the tool. my public deli link page-so far.

issue crawler, the network mapping online tool.

Then, there is the google calendar and reader which I am trying hard to make use, for the study that is. And the blog.

The plan is:

to check bookmarks for new sources -to feed subscriptions from delicious to the reader- to write blog posts when there is something to say about pieces I read- feed pages in blog with information- reflect this information in concept maps (issue crawler is not yet in this scenario).

Thoughts on Paris is Burning (1990) and queer methodologies

“An unblinking behind the scenes story of fashion obsessed New Yorkers who created “voguing” and drag balls , and turned these raucous celebrations into a powerful expression of personal pride. The world within a world is instantly familiar, filled with ambitions, desires and yearnings that reflect America itself is an intimate portrait of one urban community, a world in which the allure of high fashion, status and wealth becomes an affirmation of love, acceptance and joy”.

The rest of the film is also online. Jenny Livingston’s film, especially with the ‘behind the scenes’ factor, appears as an ethnography of an existing culture rather than an interpretation or, better and since this is a text and not an academic piece, a representation. Here, the academic world came to dicuss the importance of positionality as an indispensable aspect of queer methodology. Jin Haritaworn (2008) in Shifting Positionalities: Empirical Reflections on a Queer/Trans of Colour Methodology gives an account of the conflict that emerged. Judith Butler‘s ‘Gender is Burning’ (1993) has been criticised (Prosser 1998) as mis-representing the working class trans women of color and this was because she did not reflect on her privileged position (non-trans, white). Haritaworn explains,

“Butler’s ‘inclusion’ of trans identities under the queer umbrella caused particular epistemic violence to the participating working-class MTFs of colour, Venus Xtravaganza and Octavia St. Laurent, whom Butler represented as gay men who merely wanted to pass as heterosexual”.

The lesson learned from this for Haritaworn is that emancipatory projects need to be involved, empirical, personal in order to be political. Knowledge is, in queer methodologies, a joint production of researchers and subjects.

I hardly see this as any different from what feminist methodologies are all about. Apart from that, the question for me here is how far positionality for Haritaworn is a matter of self-reflexivity or a matter of actually being part of what you talk about in order to avoid ‘queering-down’. For Sandra Harding in later versions of standpoint feminism (situated and multiple), the subject of knowledge is the marginal, even as the researcher (or the director in the case of Livingston) does not identify as such.

Clearly here the implications of ‘positionality’ for methodology are confusing. They, to me, have an essence of ‘coming-out’ and a hint of guilt. The essence of ‘coming-out’ is the pressure to justify oneself and their own experiences as a researcher to the wider community, and possibly queer studies community, by giving personal accounts of oppression, relating to ethnicity, race, and, foremost, sexuality. Queering ‘down’ and queering ‘up’ are also confusing terms because they contruct a system of status difference between researcher/ subjects of research, which then Haritaworn tries to deconstruct by emplying the concept of positionality.

I guess the confusion lies at the understanding of the word and the use of the word ‘queering’. Haritaworn concludes:

“Queering can be a shared grammar to communicate a shared experience of being treated differently. It can also be an extension of solidarity to those who are pathologised through gender and sexuality discourses other than homophobia. It is contextual and situational”.

‘Queering’ thus here is used with emphasis on the sharing component- as an identifying tool for the link between people, which adds up to their experience of oppression. To me ‘queering’ as a research strategy has the meaning of keeping distance (Teresa de Lauretis talks about this attitude to research) from practices and meanings in order to understand, analyse and eventually change normativity. Hence the positionality that is needed in a project is actually about the use of ‘queer’, as an identity, like in Haritaworn, or as a methodological tool.

BUTLER, Judith (1990), Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, Routledge: New York.

HARDING, Sandra (1991), Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking from Women’s Lives, Milton Keynes: Open University Press.

HOOKS, bell (1992), ‘Is Paris Burning?’ Black Looks: Race and Representation, London: Turnaround, p. 145-156.

PROSSER, Jay (1998), Second Skins: The Body Narratives of Transsexuality, New York: Columbia University Press.


feminist epistemology

I am at the moment working on how feminist epistemology influences the choice of a social research method.

What is feminist epistemology and philosophy of science? Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy defines it as the study of the ways gender influences our conceptions of knowledge, the knowing subject, and practices of inquiry and justification. The history of epistemology is one of clash between committment to struggle and to philosophy (Alcoff and Potter 1993). Initially, it aimed to show how women have been traditionally disadvantaged and excluded from systems of knowledge production. While this project of critique still goes on, feminist epistemology has moved on to reconstruct this dominant tradition and its practices so that they serve the interests of subordinate groups (ie women).

The central concept is that of  situated knowledge. How does gender situate the subject? According to Sandra Harding’s classification (1986), three main approaches have been articulated by feminist philosophers: feminist postmodernism, feminist empiricism and feminist standpoint theory. This paper examines these approaches and, moreover, addresses the recent trend of intersectionality. Gender, for contemporary feminist philosophers, does nor function as single and universal category or the primary axis of oppression. The term ‘woman’ does not have an analytic credibility and it cannot be separated from class, race, sexuality, culture, age and other contextual categories. This school of thought has significantly transforms the methodological framework of the social research undertaken.

Biblio
Alcoff, Linda, and Elizabeth Potter, (eds.) 1993. Feminist Epistemologies. New York: Routledge
Benhabib, Seyla, Judith Butler, Drucilla Cornell and Nancy Fraser, 1995. Feminist Contentions. New York: Routledge
Butler, B. and Scott, J. (eds.), ‘Feminists Theorize the Political’, New York and London: Routledge
Haraway, Donna, 1991. “Situated Knowledges”. In Simians, Cyborgs, and Women. New York: Routledge
Harding, Sandra, 1986. The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca: Cornell University Press
E. Grosz  ‘What is feminist theory?’ in C, Pateman, E Gross (eds) Feminist Challenges (Allen and Unwin, 1986)
M. Hawkesworth ‘Knower, knowing, known: feminist theory and claims of truth’ Signs 14(3), 1989.
J.W. Scott (1992) ‘Experience’, in Judith Butler and Joan Scott (eds.), Feminists Theorize the Political. New York and London: Routledge.
C.T. Mohanty (2002) ‘”Under Western Eyes” Revisited: Feminist solidarity through anticapitalist struggles’, Signs 28(2): 499-533.
L. Stanley (1993) ‘The Knowing Because Experiencing Subject: Narratives, lives, autobiographies’, Women’s Studies International Forum 16(3): 205-215.
Umut Erel, Jin Haritaworn, Encarnación Gutiérrez Rodríguez, Christian Klesse (2007) ‘On the Depoliticisation of Intersectionality Talk. Conceptualising Multiple Oppressions in Critical Sexuality Studies’.